زبان عمومي و تخصصي
A -Radioactivity is dangerous. It may cause skin burns and it may destroy good tissues, as it destroys diseased ones. It may cause illness that could be passed on to our children and grand children. In severe cases it may even cause death.
Formerly scientists were not aware of these dangers. Marie and Pierre Curie, after having worked for a while with radioactive materials, noticed that their fingers were reddened and swollen.
The strange fact about radiation is that it can harm without causing pain. Pain makes us pull back our hands from a flame or from a very hot object, but a person handling radioactive materials has no way of telling if he is touching something too "hot "for safety.
1- The writer agrees that radioactivity.................
1) is always dangerous to our health 2) cannot affect one's genes
3) is always helpful to man 4) can kill unhealthy tissues
2- Injuries and burns produced by radioactivity are.......................
1) not noticed 2) noticed immediately
3) due to the pain caused 4) due to the redness of the skin
3- Marie and Pierre Curie discovered that radioactivity....................
1) was not a dangerous thing 2) caused pains that could be avoidable
3) was dangerouss only to scientists. 4) could cause somee damages
4- According to the passage, radiation can harm..................
1) without causing any pain 2) by causing great pain
3) only the diseased tissues 4) only the skin and fingers
5- The writer states that scientists before the Curies...............
1) had hot been affected by radiation 2) knew about the dangers of radiation
3) had been affected by radiation 4) did not know about the dangers of radiation
B - "All the world's a stage". So wrote William Shakespeare, the world's greatest dramatist. Shakespeare went on to say that all of us are actors on this stage. We are indeed, actors in the great drama called history, which is written by the deeds of man suppose you were an actor in a play written by one man or woman. Let us suppose also that you appeared on the stage for the first time in the middle of the second or third act.. In that case, you would be will aware of the fact that to do a good job of acting, you would need to know that other performers who had appeared on the stage in earlier scenes had said and done.
6- The passage says that William Shakespeare has once written that...........
1) The world is the greatest dramatist
2) he is the greatest dramatist
3) the greatest dramatist of the world is on the stage
4) the world is like a theatre
7- Shakespeare goes on to say that.................
1) he is a great actor in the history of drama
2) all human beings are actors in the drama of history
3) he is going to write a drama and call it "history"
4) history will always remember the actors performing on the stage
8- Shakespeare seems to believe that we should know the beginning of the play will if ............
1) we want to perform well the part given to us
2) we wish to understand the whole play well
3) we want to appreciate the actor's performance
4) we want to know that a good and enjoyable profession acting is
9- Shakespeare wants us to suppose that in the drama of life........................
1) we appear on the stage to play other people's roles
2) we don't begin our part from the start, but commence half way through
3) we know the play will end in the middle of the third act
4) we are given two or three acts to play
10- The main idea expressed in this passage is that.............
1) the world is a theatre in which we sit and watch
2) in the theatre of the world no one knows what role to play
3) the world is a theatre where, for a short time, we all play a part
4) we should know history in order to be able to play our part well in the theatre of the world
C- Little boys who play truant from school are unimaginative. A quiet day's fishing or eight hours in a cinema seeing the same film over and over again, is usually as far as they get. They have all been put to shame by a boy who, while playing truant, traveled 1600 miles. He hitch-hiked to Dover and, towards evening, went into a boat to find somewhere to sleep. When he woke up next morning, he discovered that the bout had, in the meantime, traveled to Calasis. No one notice the boy as he crept off. 'From there, he hitch-hiked to Paris in a lorry. The driver gave him a few biscuits and a cup of coffee and left him just outside the city. The next car the boy stopped didn't take him into the center of Paris. As he hope it would, but to perpignan on the French-Spanish border there he was picked up by a policeman and sent back to England by the local authorities. He has surely set up a record for the thousands of boys who dreams of evading school.
11- Some lazy and foolish student .......... ....... from school, and waste their time in other places.
۱get 2) escape 3) attend 4) play
12- Some people prefer to spend their time..................
1) eight hours in a cinema 2) a quiet day's fishing
3) is usually as far as they get 4) in different public places to entertain themselves.
13- The boy.................. to Dover.
1) went to see 2) moved to play
3) stood to take a car 4) bought a car
14- No one noticed the boy as.................
1) he got out the boat 2) he caught the boat
3) he stopped in the boat 4) he crawled in the boat
15- He was arrested and returned to his hometown..................
1) by the driver 2) by the local authorities 3) by the next car 4) by a lorry
متن ها یا جملات زیر را خوانده ، سپس مناسبترین گزینه را انتخاب نمائید
16- Which of the following factors are vita l to the chemical weathering?
1) Change of temperature 2) presence of plants and/or animals
3) warm and wet climate 4) very cold climate
17- The Cratons include the shields, where large areas of highly deformed igneous and metamorphic rock, the basement complex, are exposed, means that:
1) basement complex is part of a shield
2) basement complex and shield are the same
3) basement, cratons and shields are the same things
4) the craton mainly consist of intact igneous and metamorphic rocks
18- Metamorphic rocks can be subdivided into three genetic groups, although there is gradating among the groups, means that:
1) metamorphic rocks can not be subdivided
2) there are more than three genetic groups of metamorphic rocks
3) there is not sharp boundary between different metamorphic rocks
4) there is a gradation between metamorphic rocks and their genetic parents
19- Which of the given sentences is closer to the meaning of the following "the geologist should never be afraid to ask for more expenditure on exploration if, in his or her professional judgement, it is necessary "?
1) the geologist should not ask for more expenditure on exploration
2) the geologist professional judgement does not allow him to ask for expenditure
3) the geologist should not hesitate to ask for more expenditure
4) professional judgement justifies expenditure request on exploration
D - Is a broad field dealing with the solid earth, the atmosphere, and the oceans, it studies the properties of rocks and of the earth's crust, mantle, and core. It makes extensive use of earthquake waves, whether natural or artificial, in exploring and analyzing these structures.
20- This field of science named...................
1) geochemistry 2) mineralogy 3) geophysics 4) diastrophism
21- In the third sentence, earthquake waves include.................
1) natural ones 2) artificial ones
3) neither natural nor artificial ones 4) both natural and artificial ones
E- In addition the development of the time scale revealed that earth is much older than early geologists and others had imagined and that, since it's beginning, it has undergone almost constant change as a result of slow processes working throughout the plant's history.
22- the underlined word it ' refers to...............................
1) others 2) time scale 3) earth 4) in addition
F- Rocks are first subdivided on the basis of origin. The three major categories of rock are igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Origin is determined by a combination of rock characteristies, such as bedding the layering that indicates a sedimentary origin; foliation, the preferred orientation of crystals that indicates a metamorphic origin; and a variety of other textures and structures. Although there arc some differences in mineral composition among the three rock types, it is more useful to discussmineralogical andtexturalattributes for each major group separately. Once the igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rockshave been described, it will be easier to see how the three groups can be distinguished from each other .
23- What would be the basis for determination of the origin of the rocks?
1) combination of bedding and layering characteristics
2) combination of textures and structures
3)foliation and preferred orientation of crystals
4) total rock properties .
24- According to the passage igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks could be easily recognized after………
1 describing the three groups of rocks
2) describing their textures and structures
3) discussing the mineral characteristics of the rocks
4) discussing the textural characteristics of the rocks
25- What would be the major differences between the three groups of rocks ?
1) igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks
2) mineralogical and textural attributes for each major group
3) mineral composition among the three rock groups
4) mixture of composition, texture and structure
G - By the term Karst, we mean all the processes and phenomena connected with the dissolution of rocks by water. In addition to the creation of surficial basins and subterranean void spaces (caves) by the gradual dissolving of the rock, the latter of which may also develop up to the land surface by Stopping collapse,we also see both subsidences and sinkholes on the land surface.
26- Which of the words below, is the responsible for karastification?
1) wind 2) water 3)temperature 4) pressure
27- The final occurrence of karastificiation is...................
1) caves 2) surficial basins 3) subterranean void 4) sinkholes
H- The plutonic ultramafic rocks are classified according to their content of mafic minerals, which consist of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, hornblende, sometimes biotite, and various but usually small amounts of garnet and spinel.
28- The platonic ultramafic rocks are classified according to their content of...................
1) olivine and pyroxene 2) hornblend and spinel
3) mafic minerals 4) hornblend and clinopyroxene
L - During the early and the middle Miocene occurred the formation of new ocean crust in the western Mediterranean, In this time the continental crust of the Alboran sea thinned, reaching only 15 km in several places; this extension affected also the Bentic and Rif internal zones situated onshore.
29- When the new ocean crust in the western Mediterranean occurred?
1) at the second part of Miocene 2) at the first part of Miocene
3) at the end of Miocene 4) at the beginning of Miocene
30- The continental curst of the Alboran sea thinned because of
1) composition forces 2) shear forces 3) extension forces 4) uplift forces